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The 1861 England, Wales & Scotland Census was taken on the night of 7 April 1861 and gave the total population as 23,085,579.

Searching the 1861 England, Wales & Scotland Census

The golden rule of family history is to check the original historical record, or ‘primary source’, wherever possible. We have provided clear images of the original census enumeration books for you to view once you’ve found the right family in the indexes.

When using census returns you should first search the transcriptions to help locate your ancestor in the census, and then view the original images to validate your findings. It will also help you see the household in the context of surrounding households.

This is particularly important as transcribing an entire census is a huge and difficult task, and whilst we have used the expertise of our transcribers and the experience of key representatives from the genealogy community to help us translate the records, it is inevitable that there will be some errors.

Note: the census includes details of people resident in docked vessels and institutions such as prisons, workhouses, hospitals, and barracks, as well as individual households.

What can you find in the 1861 census?

Census returns can not only help us determine who our ancestors were, but they can also tell us:

  • Where your ancestors were living
  • Who they were living with
  • What their occupations were
  • If they had any servants
  • Who their neighbours were
  • If they had any brothers and sisters
  • What their ages were at the time of the census
  • If they had any disabilities.

As well as giving us the above information, the fact that census returns are taken every ten years also allows us to track the movements of our ancestors through time as they perhaps move house, get married, have children or even change occupations.

The fields which have been transcribed for the 1861 England, Wales & Scotland Census on findmypast are:

  • First name
  • Middle name
  • Last name
  • Sex
  • Marriage condition
  • Occupation
  • Birth place
  • Age
  • Place of residence
  • County
  • Relationship to head of household

Known Issues in the 1861 England, Wales & Scotland Census

Having trouble finding a man aged 14-18 years or older in the 1861 England, Wales & Scotland Census? He could have been in the army and you may find him in the 1861 Worldwide Army Index. The Index is extensive and lists nearly a quarter of a million men, the majority of these serving overseas.

Missing pieces of the 1861 England, Wales & Scotland Census

There are a number of enumeration books missing, or parts of enumeration books (usually missing start or finish), from the 1861 England, Wales & Scotland Census. Below is a list of the books affected that we know of, both those missing in their entirety (M) and those which are incomplete (I) in the National Archives.

PieceCountyCity or boroughParishWardM/I
145MiddlesexIslingtonIslington East (2)IslingtonM
217MiddlesexWest LondonWest London North (1)St Bartholomew the LessI
219MiddlesexWest LondonWest London South (2)Barnard"s InnM
220MiddlesexLondon CityLondon City SW (1)St Augustine Watling StreetI
229MiddlesexLondon CityLondon City NE (5)St Christopher le StockI
407KentGreenwichWoolwich Arsenal (6)WoolwichM
473KentNorth AylesfordNorthfleet (1)IfieldI
485KentMallingEast Peckham (2)Wateringbury: Lily HoeI
499KentMaidstoneLoose (3)BarmingI
499KentMaidstoneLoose (3)West BarmingI
541KentEastryWingham (2)GoodnestoneI
565SussexBattleBattle (3)PenhurstI
601SussexBrightonThe Palace (3)BrightonM
690HampshireWinchesterThe Worthys (2)LainstonI
758BerkshireWindsorEgham (1)Thorpe (Surrey)I
837HertfordshireHemel HempsteadKings Langley (1)FlaundenI
863BuckinghamshireWycombePrinces Risborough (5)IllmireI
903OxfordshireWoodstockWoodstock (2)Wootton M
    Stonesfield  
    Combe  
    Woodstock  
    Blenheim  
    Bladon  
    Hensington  
    Begbroke  
    Shipton on Cherwell  
    Hampton-Gay  
    Hampton-Poyle  
    Kidlington  
    Gosford  
    Thrup  
    Water-Eaton  
    Woolvercot  
    Yarnton  
    Cassington  
    Worton 
952NorthamptonshireWellingboroughHigham Ferrers (2)IrchesterI
952NorthamptonshireWellingboroughHigham Ferrers (2)IrthlingboroughI
1039CambridgeshireElyEly (3)Ely Trinity M
    Ely College  
    Ely St Mary  
    Stuntney  
    Chettisham 
1047CambridgeshireWisbechLeverington (1)Tydd St GilesI
1047CambridgeshireWisbechLeverington (1)Leverington: Parson DroveI
1194NorfolkYarmouthYarmouth Northern (2)Great Yarmouth: Cobham IslandI
1234NorfolkDepwadeForncett (4)Great Moulton M
    Aslacton  
    Forncett St Peter  
    Forncett St Mary  
    Hapton  
    Ashwellthorpe  
    Fundenhall  
    Tacolnestone  
    Bunwell  
    Carleton-Rode  
    Tibenham 
1984StaffordshireWolverhamptonTettenhall (1)Pattingham: Rudge (Shropshire)I
2211WarwickshireRugbyRugby (1)Newbold-upon-Avon: Little Lawford I
    Long Lawford 
2211WarwickshireRugbyRugby (1)Monks Kirby: EasenhallI
2247LeicestershireLutterworthLutterworth (1)Claybrooke: Wigston ParvaI
2365LincolnshireHorncastleWragby (1)HattonI
2365LincolnshireHorncastleWragby (1)Baumber a.k.a. BamburghI
2365LincolnshireHorncastleWragby (1)GautbyI
2365LincolnshireHorncastleWragby (1)WaddingworthI
2625CheshireGreat BoughtonChester Castle (2)Chester St John the BaptistI
3278West YorkshireHalifaxHalifax (4)HalifaxI
3388West YorkshireLeedsWest Leeds (3)Leeds NW WardM
3652North YorkshireGuisboroughMarske (2)Marske: RedcarI
3735DurhamDurhamLanchester (2)Brancepeth: Hedley HopeI
3855NorthumberlandCastle WardStamfordham (2)Newburn: Black Callerton I
    Butterlaw  
    East & West Whorlton  
    Newbiggin 
    East & West Denton  
    Newburn Hall  
    Sugley 
3913CumberlandCarlisleWetheral (1) I
3984MonmouthshireMonmouthDingestow (2)Garway (Herefordshire)I
3984MonmouthshireMonmouthDingestow (2)SkenfrethI
4010MonmouthshirePontypoolPontypool (1)MamhiladI
4013MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)GoldcliffI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)LlangattockI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)Kemeys InferiorI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)TredunnockI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)LlanhennockI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)LlanmartinI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)Magor: RedwickI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)Witson a.k.a WhitsonI
4014MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)NashI
4015MonmouthshireNewportCaerleon (1)CaerleonM
4022MonmouthshireNewportNewport (2)St Woollos & NewportM
4024MonmouthshireNewportSt Woollos (3)Michaelstoneyvedw Llanvedw (Glamorganshire)I
4025MonmouthshireNewportSt Woollos (3)BettwsI
4025MonmouthshireNewportSt Woollos (3)MalpasI
4025MonmouthshireNewportSt Woollos (3)HenllisI
4025MonmouthshireNewportSt Woollos (3)RiscaI
4025MonmouthshireNewportSt Woollos (3)Llanvihangel LlantarnamI
4027MonmouthshireNewportMynyddyslwyn (4)Machen: Upper & Lower MachenI
    Rhydgwern (Glamorganshire) 
4041GlamorganshireCardiffSt Nicholas (3)Welsh St DonatsI
4077GlamorganshireBridgendBridgend (3)EwennyI
4077GlamorganshireBridgendBridgend (3)Merthyr MawrI
4078GlamorganshireBridgendBridgend (3)LalestonI
4079GlamorganshireBridgendBridgend (3)Tythegston: Lower TythegstonI
4131CarmarthenshireLlandilofawrLlandilo (4)Llandilofawr: Llandilo TownM
4132CarmarthenshireLlandilofawrLlandebie (5)LlandebieI
4133CarmarthenshireLlandilofawrLlandebie (5)LlandebieI
4137CarmarthenshireCarmarthenSt Clear"s (2)LaugharneM
4137CarmarthenshireCarmarthenSt Clear"s (2)LlansadurnenM
4137CarmarthenshireCarmarthenSt Clear"s (2)LlandawkeM
4137CarmarthenshireCarmarthenSt Clear"s (2)St Clear"sM
4138CarmarthenshireCarmarthenSt Clear\"s (2)LlangunnockI
4143CarmarthenshireCarmarthenConwil (4)LlanllawddogI
4143CarmarthenshireCarmarthenConwil (4)MerthyrI
4143CarmarthenshireCarmarthenConwil (4)AbernantI
4146PembrokeshireNarberthLlanboidy (1)LlanfalltegI
4149PembrokeshireNarberthNarberth (4)CrinowI
4149PembrokeshireNarberthNarberth (4)Cilymaenllwyd: Castle-Dyrran (Carmarthenshire)I
4154PembrokeshirePembrokeTenby (1)Caldy & St Margaret's IslandsI
4161PembrokeshireHaverfordwestMilford (1)St Bride'sI
4161PembrokeshireHaverfordwestMilford (1)HasguardI
4163PembrokeshireHaverfordwestHaverfordwest (2)Harroldston St IssellsI
4163PembrokeshireHaverfordwestHaverfordwest (2)Haverfordwest St ThomasI
4163PembrokeshireHaverfordwestHaverfordwest (2)Haverfordwest St MaryI
4164PembrokeshireHaverfordwestHaverfordwest (2)Haverfordwest St Mary: St Martin & PrendergastI
4165PembrokeshireHaverfordwestHaverfordwest (2)Haverfordwest St Mary: UzmastonI
4173CardiganshireCardiganNewport (1)Newport (Pembrokeshire)I
4174CardiganshireCardiganNewport (1)Nevern (Pembrokeshire)I
4178CardiganshireCardiganLlandygwydd (3)Llanfihangelpenbedw (Pembrokeshire)I
4184CardiganshireNewcastle EmlynLlandyssil (3)LlandyssilI
4185CardiganshireNewcastle EmlynLlandyssil (3)HenllanI
4187CardiganshireLampeterPencarreg (2)Pencarreg (Carmarthenshire)I
4187CardiganshireLampeterPencarreg (2)Llanycrwys (Carmarthenshire): Fforest I
    Mynachty 
4187CardiganshireLampeterPencarreg (2)CellanI
4187CardiganshireLampeterPencarreg (2)LlanfairclydogauI
4190CardiganshireAberayronLlandisilio (1)DihewidI
4196CardiganshireAberystwythAberystwyth (2)Aberystwyth M
    Llanbadarnfawr  
    Uchayndre  
    Issayndre  
    Upper & Lower Vainor  
    Broncastellan  
    Clarach 
4202CardiganshireTregaronLlangeitho (2)NantcwnlleI
4211BrecknockshireBrecknockBrecknock (3)Brecknock St David & Lower DivisionI
4225BrecknockshireHayHay (3)LlanigonI
    Glynfach 
4225BrecknockshireHayHay (3)HayI
4225BrecknockshireHayHay (3)Cusop (Herefordshire)I
4228RadnorshirePresteigneRadnor (2)Radnor I
    New Radnor  
    Upper Harpton 
4231RadnorshirePresteigneKington (3)Stanton-upon-Arrow (Herefordshire)I
4256MontgomeryshireMontgomeryChirbury (2)ChirburyI
4261MontgomeryshireLlanfyllinLlansaintffraid (2)Llansaintffraid: Pool I
    Deythur 
4262MontgomeryshireLlanfyllinLlansaintffraid (2)GuilsfieldI
4263MontgomeryshireLlanfyllinLlansaintffraid (2)GuilsfieldI
4263MontgomeryshireLlanfyllinLlansaintffraid (2)LlanfyllinI
4265MontgomeryshireLlanfyllinLlanrhaiade (3)Llanarmonmynyddmawr (Denbighshire)I
4266FlintshireHolywellWhitford (1)GwaenysgorI
4270FlintshireHolywellHolywell (2)HolywellI
4272FlintshireHolywellFlint (3)Northop I
    Caerfallwch  
    Golftyn  
    Wepre  
    Leadbrook Major & Minor  
    Kelsterton  
    Soughton & Cunnah's Quay 
4274FlintshireHolywellMold (4)Cilcen I
    Rhesycae  
    Cefyn  
    Llan a.k.a. Tre-Llan 
    Llysdanhunedd  
    Llysycoed 
    Maesygroes  
    Mechlas  
    Trellynian 
4276FlintshireHolywellMold (4)Mold I
    Leeswood  
    Gwernafield  
    Arddynwent  
    Nerquis  
    Gwsaney  
    Hartsheath  
    Hendrebiffa 
4280DenbighshireWrexhamRuabon (3)ErbistockI
4290DenbighshireRuthinRuthin (2)EfenechtydI
4291DenbighshireRuthinLlanelidan (3)Llanfairdyffrynclwyd M
    Llanelidan  
    Derwen 
4295DenbighshireSt AsaphSt Asaph (1)Bodfary (Flintshire)I
4295DenbighshireSt AsaphSt Asaph (1)Dymeirchion (Flintshire)I
4295DenbighshireSt AsaphSt Asaph (1)Dyserth (Flintshire)I
4297DenbighshireSt AsaphSt Asaph (1)MeriadogI
4298DenbighshireSt AsaphAbergele (2)St GeorgeI
4299DenbighshireSt AsaphAbergele (2)LlanddulasI
4299DenbighshireSt AsaphAbergele (2)Bettwsynrhos a.k.a. BettwsabergeleI
4301DenbighshireSt AsaphDenbigh (3)LlanefyddI
4301DenbighshireSt AsaphDenbigh (3)Henllan: Trefrant I
    Bylchan 
4309DenbighshireLlanrwstLlanrwst (1)LlanrwstI
4314MerionethshireBalaBala (1)LlangowerI
4319MerionethshireDolgellyBarmouth (2)LlanfachrethI
4319MerionethshireDolgellyBarmouth (2)LlanelltydI
4330CarnarvonshirePwllheliPwllheli (2)PenrhosI
4330CarnarvonshirePwllheliPwllheli (2)LlanorI
4330CarnarvonshirePwllheliPwllheli (2)Denio I
    Pwllheli 
4344CarnarvonshireCarnarvonCarnarvon (3)Carnarvon M
    Llanbeblig  
    Llanfaglan 
4389Islands in the British Seas Le Marchant  M
   Great & Little Sark